Recent Changes

Saturday, January 25

  1. page sermons_index edited ... {paolopred01b.jpg} Sermons by Paolo Castellina Please, see this other website too Listen…
    ...
    {paolopred01b.jpg}
    Sermons by Paolo Castellina
    Please, see this other website too
    Listening to Him: The Christian's Continuing education (Mark 9:2-9).
    A Sign That Will Be Spoken Against (Luke 2:25-35).
    (view changes)
    6:41 am

Monday, November 5

  1. page History of South Frith edited ... This area formerly known as "South fryth" is clearly seen marked on John Speed's map…
    ...
    This area formerly known as "South fryth" is clearly seen marked on John Speed's map of Kent in 1611 on which Southborough, a medieval suburb of Tonbridge, though it existed, was not marked. South Frith is located in the **High Weald of Kent** ("wald" means wood in German). The High Weald is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty characterised by wooded valleys running east to west with sandstone ridges and clay valleys. It is a landscape largely unchanged since medieval times. There are still stretches of ancient woodland here, untouched by time: such as Simmonds Wood, Barnett's Wood (a nature reserve) and Brokes Wood. On the damp slopes of Brokes Wood, three useful streams rose in ancient times, and still flow. They pass first into what is now a private pond for fishing, then on through South Frith to turn its mills and then into the Medway, at Tonbridge, which flows out into the Thames Estuary.
    There are plenty of copses in South Frith like Minepit Wood, Beeches Wood, Annise Wood, Coney Burrow (rabbit burrow) Wood, High Wood, Rook Wood and LIttle Rook Wood.There is one quiet lane called Vauxhall Lane leading to the site of the vanished Tudor iron smelting forge **Vauxhall Furnace** which was once leased, by Queen Elizabeth's favourite, Robert Dudley. There are farms, some with names denoting old mill and iron trades: Broken Farm, Mote Farm, Old Forge Farm, Forest Farm and Bournemis Farm. There is a fine oast house and garden Honnington Farm Gardens which can be visited now and then, near the finest equestrian centre in Kent, where the wealthy stable horses, no doubt to ride through Southborough valley. Suitably, the Centre teaches medieval Skills at Arms - medieval jousting on horse back.
    ...
    of the great walks of Britain (link to be attached).Great British Walks.
    There was a manor, game reserve and park enclosed with fences at the northern part of Tonbridge, called North Frith. In the same way, there was an estate, though of much larger size called South Frith at the southern side of Tonbridge, with a deer chase laid out to grass, with intermittent trees (like Knole Park), enclosed by a pale. So "South Frith" comprised a chase, woods, mills, river (tributary of the River Medway) and in Tudor times, industrial iron works.
    Research shows that this valley had been highly prized and treated as a "royal reward" down the ages. For example, a great house "Great Bounds" in Southborough owned by the Boleyn and Carey families. Later **Catherine of Braganza** stayed in Great Bounds House, possibly built on Boleyn family land by Lord Hunsdon, Queen Elizabeth's 1st cousin. Its location today is marked today by Bounds Lodge, west of the road between Tonbridge and Southborough from which the whole of South Frith/Southborough Valley can be easily viewed.
    (view changes)
    9:30 am
  2. page History of South Frith edited Giving History and Places Back to People ... South Frith is the History of England High Weald…
    Giving History and Places Back to People
    ...
    South Frith is the History of England
    High Weald royal chase and Jacobean mansion
    Introduction
    ...
    local history, givinggives history back to ancient
    ...
    roads and in giving that
    ...
    much 'resonance' . This.This is the
    ...
    important to us:us who live near it and enjoy it.
    South Frith is "a vast landscape, beautifully wooded....quantities of large old trees" said Horace Walpole
    Introduction
    The London-Hastings railway line between Tonbridge and Tunbridge Wells passes through a verdant valley of rare beauty. As it emerges from "Somerhill Tunnel", south of Tonbridge, for about three miles, until it enters the cutting running into High Brooms, there is countryside of such loveliness that it takes your breath away. For up to two miles, one sees nothing but beautiful woods, green fields on slopes and wild flowers, embraced by the undulating lap of the High Weald of Kent.
    ...
    this place. OnlyFew know that turner painted it and only a handful
    ...
    is the royalchase or aristocratic deer park
    ...
    the valley near Tonbridge.and when one looks on old maps one sees the valley's old name and that of its counterpart: North Frith.
    The train
    ...
    of ancient iron age roadriverside route which runs
    ...
    iron age and Saxon hillfort at
    ...
    Hill near Ightham,Ightham which the Romans under Julius Casear took, with Saxonbury
    ...
    near Frant. ItThis route crosses the
    ...
    this route through South Frith not as
    ...
    as a road. This clarifies why afterpathway. After the railway's
    ...
    winter a very little used.used pedestrian muddy track and how thisas once royal
    ...
    was "cut off",off" at the viaduct with no laces for car parking. Now since Powder Mill Lane suddenly stops inLane, once the valley,iron age through route, suddenly seems to stop at the
    ...
    first into a what is
    ...
    leased, by a Queen'sQueen Elizabeth's favourite, Robert
    ...
    wealthy stable horseshorses, no doubt to ride
    ...
    two Victorian villasvillas, with views over itit, on the
    ...
    for birdwatching. However, the walk from Southborough to the Vauxhall Inn through the valley has been recently named as one of the great walks of Britain (link to be attached).
    There was a manor, game reserve and park enclosed with fences at the northern part of Tonbridge, called North Frith. In the same way, there was an estate, though of much larger size called South Frith at the southern side of Tonbridge, with a deer chase laid out to grass, with intermittent trees (like Knole Park), enclosed by a pale. So "South Frith" comprised a chase, woods, mills, river (tributary of the River Medway) and in Tudor times, industrial iron works.

    Research shows
    ...
    prized and even treated as
    ...
    the ages. South Frith was once royal,For example, a royal chase surroundedgreat house "Great Bounds" in Southborough owned by a pale (fence and ditch) which stopped deer once they had entered from escaping. It also belonged to a medieval female role model, the intelligent founder of Clare College Cambridge, Elizabeth de Clare.Boleyn and Carey families. Later **Catherine
    ...
    easily viewed.
    South Frith was once royal, a royal chase surrounded by a pale (fence and ditch) which stopped deer once they had entered from escaping. It also belonged to a medieval female "role model", the intelligent founder of Clare College Cambridge, Elizabeth de Clare.
    This valley
    ...
    High quality Piedmontesepossibly Italian sweet chestnuts
    ...
    delicious chestnuts. Romans exported the iron from the High Weald iron forges to Rome to make swords of the finest quality. South Frith
    ...
    16th century. Fascinatingly, one can still visit their living quarters within Tonbridge Castle. The mills
    ...
    iron forges as well as the valley of South Frith thenlater belonged to
    ...
    and vales.
    Today, the history of "South Frith" is largely lost. There are a handful of people who live and work in the valley, riding and training horses and farming livestock. One

    One
    can walk
    ...
    seem almost tame.
    In
    tame.In the ancient
    ...
    a threat.
    History of South Frith
    There was a manor, game reserve and park enclosed with fences at

    Today,
    the northern parthistory of Tonbridge, called North Frith. In the same way, there was an estate,"South Frith" is largely lost though "Southborough Historical Society" may be one source of much larger size called South Frith at the southern side of Tonbridge, withinformation about it. There are still only a deer
    chase laid out to grass, with intermittent trees (like Knole Park), enclosed by a pale. So "South Frith" comprised a chase, woods, mills, river (tributary
    handful of people who live and work in the River Medway)valley, riding and in Tudor times, industrial iron works.training horses and farming livestock.
    Tonbridge and the "de Clare" family
    South Frith was probably part of the estates of the Norman family of Clare, Earls of Gloucester and Hertford, who owned Tonbridge Castle and the manor of Tonbridge (then all called "Tunbridge"). They built the Priory of St Mary Magdalene which stood on the site of Tonbridge Station. In fact, when Tonbridge signal box was being constructed bones from the Abbey were uncovered. South Frith remained with the de Clare family until **Gilbert de Clare**, the only son and heir of Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, who died without issue in 1314, in the reign of **King Edward II**.
    ...
    Richard of York
    South Frith then passed to **Anne Mortimer**, Countess of Cambridge, wife of Richard Earl of Cambridge who was the Edmund Earl of March's sister and from her to her son, his nephew ****Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York****, the father of both Edward IV and Richard III. Richard, Duke of York was also great-grandfather, through Elizabeth of York, of Henry VIII.
    ...
    of York, being being both
    Thus, Richard, Duke of York regained the possession of South Frith and his other lands. After his death, Cecillie, Duchess of York, his widow, and mother of King Edward IV, continued to hold the estate until her death in 1495. Then it passed through her daughter Elizabeth of York, wife of Henry VII, to King Henry VIII.
    Henry VIII
    ...
    After this, Mary Tudor, who executed John Dudley for putting Lady Jane Grey on the throne, granted South Frith to Cardinal Reginald Pole, to hold during his life. His mother was the grand-daughter of Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville its previous owners. Cecily had died in 1495 still in possession of South Frith. Probably, his family knew South Frith well. Cardinal Pole died in 1558, and South Frith reverted to Queen Elizabeth 1st.
    Elizabeth 1st
    ...
    its iron workings.workings, useful for artillery for his wars. He died
    Frances Walsingham
    Frances, Countess of Essex, nee Frances Walsingham, was daughter of spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham, to whom Queen Elizabeth owed so much. She had first married Sir Philip Sidney, son of Sir Henry Sidney of nearby Penshurst, when she was fourteen. They had both experienced the St Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572 whilst living at the English Embassy in Paris. After Philip died of his wounds in the Low Countries, she secretly married Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, favourite of the Queen. Elizabeth 1st was forced to behead him in 1601 for leading a failed rebellion against her in London.
    ...
    Frances Walsingham at the time her husband's execution, had just seen her daughter by Philip Sidney, Elizabeth Sidney, marry Roger Manners, Earl of Rutland (aged 35) as the age of thirteen. Now in her thirties, she had four small children by Robert Devereaux, Earl of Essex one of whom is an ancestor of Diana Princess of Wales, Elizabeth Bowes Lyon and Prince William.
    The Clarikards
    ...
    an earlier medieval mansion, in
    Somerhill
    ...
    sandstone. It still overlooks South
    The Lost Tomb of the Clanrikards
    In 1628, Charles 1st made Clanrikard Earl of St. Albans and Viscount of Galloway. However, he, like Frances, lived most of the time at Somerhill, which was within easy reach of Courts at Whitehall and Greenwich. Frances died in 1631 and her husband died in 1635. It is reliably reported that the Earl was buried in To(u)nbridge Parish Church.
    ...
    just solved the"the mystery of
    ...
    of Frances Walsingham.Walsingham" which has caused debate online. The National
    ...
    more confidence - and raise
    English Civil War
    **Ulick,** de Burgh, heir of the Earl of Clanrickard and Frances Walsingham, was a royalist and fought for King Charles I in Ireland, from which he was obliged to flee to find refuge in England, with the King, who in 1645 created him Marquis of Clanrikard. His attachment to the King was a sufficient reason for the Parliament to declare him "a delinquent" and to confiscate South Frith in 1645.
    Effect of The Civil War on Somerhill and South Frith
    In 1645, Parliament granted Tunbridge (Tonbridge) Castle, the manor, lands, a parcel of the estate of Somerhill, belonging to the Earl of St. Albans, regarded by them as " a papist", to his half brother **Robert, Earl of Essex**, against whom he had fought during The Civil War. This was a reward for the Earl of Essex's "heroic valour, prudent conduct, and unspotted fidelity in that high and important command of captain-general of their (Parliamentary) army", to hold during his life "in part of the yearly sum of £10,000" which they had voted to him.
    ...
    not enjoy the manor of South Frith
    At the Restoration, South Frith and Somerhill were restored to the Burke-de Burgh-Clanrikards. They were descended from the original de Clare family, who originally owned South Frith.
    The Restoration and afterwards
    ...
    at Somerhill, no doubt treating it
    When she died in 1698, Somerhill passed to her son, John Villiers, who styled himself the Earl of Buckingham. Villers sold the Manor of South Frith to a man called Mr Dekins. Some 1,200 acres (490 ha) of grounds was sold separately to Abraham Hill of Sutton at Hone, Kent. Somerhill itself became a warrener. Mr Dekins sold Somerhill to Mr Cave, who sold it in 1712 to Mr John Woodgate of Penshurst. Woodgate lived in the house and on his death it passed to his son Henry, who lived at Somerhill until 1769.
    Horace Walpole in 1752 described its setting as "a vast landscape, beautifully wooded and has quantities of large old trees to shelter itself". Somerhill was itself remained derelict for most of the rest of 18th century.
    ...
    Somerhill schools cover just 120 acres, which is a fraction of the size of the park of South Frith which was about 6500 acres.
    History of High Brooms, Tunbridge Wells
    Summary of impressions, following a fine talk, delivered
    ...
    the area.
    Thus,
    Thus, many people
    ...
    North Farm retail park"Retail Park" which now
    ...
    a commuter areabelt just north
    ...
    in South Frith. This track still exists,Frith, beyond the
    ...
    the medieval manor of South Frith manor.Frith. Other parts
    ...
    for hunting. ThusSo most of
    ...
    Retail Park. ItThe fine house has long since vanished.
    In
    vanished having been demolished to facilitate the growing town of Tunbridge Wells.
    The reason for this is that in
    the 1860s,
    ...
    its own sewage.sewage build-up. He advised
    ...
    the town. So aA site near
    ...
    Mr Weare.
    Mr
    Mr Weare created
    ...
    class homes -sinceas the wealthymiddle classes did not
    ...
    High Brooms. HeWeare built about
    ...
    the Methodists set uphad a vision for St Matthew's Church, for a Methodist Church, schools,for schools and women's groups and for the High
    ...
    by 1900. Indeed High Brooms
    ...
    there were houses.houses in place. The census
    ...
    Brooms, but few.few of them. Most older
    ...
    the 20th century.
    The
    century.The only listed
    ...
    railway opened up,up through South
    ...
    servants of the rich in Tunbridge Wells, for brick workers
    ...
    result, many ownedworking class people came to own their own homes and historically enjoyedenjoy fresh air,
    ...

    Residents today in High Brooms can also
    ...
    but also numerous filmsthe out of town entertainment centre at "Knights Park" cinema centre.Knights Park, which shows the latest films and links to the "Met" in New York for live opera. Once could
    ...
    and pleasant placelocation to live.
    Footnote :
    James_Edward_ColebrookeJames Edward Colebrooke, 3rd Baronet, was born on 7th July 1761 and baptized at St.Botolphs, Bishopsgate on 6th August following. He succeeded his father (as 3rd Baronet and Hereditary Keeper of the Castle of Crawford) in 1809. He became Senior Merchant on the Bengal establishment, Judge of Appeals at Moorshedabad, and was Resident and Commissioner at Delhi. However, he was suspended from office in 1829 'on account of various corrupt practices' but in fact he appear to have been caught out taking bribes by future Civil Service reformer, Charles Trevelyn. Returning to England, he resided at Colebrooke Park between Tonbridge nd Tunbridge Wells in Kent and died there on 5th November 1838. His will pr. 14th January 1839 (P.C.C. Vaughan 1-50). By his wife (and cousin once removed) Louisa Ann Colebrooke (noted above) widow of Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Stewart, he had no children and was succeeded by his nephew Thomas Edward Colebrooke. However, whilst in India, James Edward had illegitimate issue, one of whom played cricket for England.
    (view changes)
    9:26 am

Sunday, September 2

  1. page While the Earth Remains edited ... Caring for the Environment: a Christian Duty It seems that the Christian world, today, is spl…
    ...
    Caring for the Environment: a Christian Duty
    It seems that the Christian world, today, is split into two basically opposite fields :
    one- one interprets Christianity
    ...
    of Creation;
    the

    - the
    other “spiritualises”
    Among the latter group are many Evangelicals, who, perhaps in reaction to the overemphasis of the former, project their concerns onto “spiritual things” like conversion, new birth, prayer, heaven, evangelism and so on.
    Climate Change has forced everybody, now, to come to terms to the necessary change in personal and social lifestyle required as the mean of surviving in this world, a world which is corrupted in many ways by irresponsible human activities. Ours and the future generations are more than ever put at high risk, as sufferings of all kinds for most of the world’s population seem to loom on the horizon due to the impending collapse of the natural balance of this planet’s ecosystem.
    (view changes)
    3:33 am
  2. page While the Earth Remains edited ... In view of all this, “apocalyptic” Christians consider this situation as a further demonstrati…
    ...
    In view of all this, “apocalyptic” Christians consider this situation as a further demonstration that this world is coming to a soon end and that Biblical prophecies were right. Consequently, their message echoes Jesus’ as He proclaimed: "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent and believe in the gospel." (Mark 1:15). It is for this reason that they often sneer at the activities of other Christians, who cooperate with politicians and social activists in order to reverse this dramatic trend or, at least, to moderate its effects. “The world will inevitably get worse and worse,” they say, “so it is utterly futile to try to stop this unavoidable development. The only thing needed is the call to repentance, in preparation for the end of the world”.
    All this might well be true, but it cannot and must not be for us an excuse not to exemplify, as Christians, a different lifestyle. It cannot be an excuse for not doing what is right and true, for not showing compassion towards those in need, for not binding up the wounds of this suffering world, for not acting so that the effects of sin are neutralized, for not joining our voice and action with all those who in this world who are aware of the coming global catastrophe and want to do something about it.
    ...
    most important:
    To love God and to be like Him means to care for the things that He cares for
    To claim to love the Creator, but to abuse the world in which we live means despising and insulting Him
    ...
    Things and animals (and often human beings) have often been considered things to use and to abuse, things to exploit with no consideration whatsoever for their preservation: but this is a mistake.
    The cultural mandate to human beings has often been misunderstood. God said: “Subdue it and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” (Genesis 1 :28). “Subdue” and “have dominion” does not mean that we are allowed to be over Creation as masters, tyrants, utter exploiters, but that we must be wise and just managers, carers, “gardeners”. This language of "dominion" is balanced by the language of Genesis 2:15, where humans are put on the earth to till ("to work, serve") and to keep ("to guard, protect") it.
    ...
    “subdue” (כּבשׁ kâbash)kâbash) and “dominion” (רדה râdâh)râdâh) do mean
    Furthermore, too often we think of the Earth as a collection of inanimate objects, but this is far from much biblical imagery. The Bible paints Creation not as a passive, lifeless collection of rocks and earth, but as an entity that is full of life, full of praise, and full of God's glory. It reveals His character and inspires us to worship Him. Creation is precious and wonderful independent of any utility it might have for us.
    3. We are interconnected with the earth and we cannot see ourselves apart from it
    ...
    is: אדם 'âdâm,'âdâm, while ground is: אדמה 'ădâmâh.'ădâmâh. The Earth
    God later announces that humanity upon death will revert to the earth, a tragic reversal of the original act of Creation: "By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return." (Genesis 3:19). To care for Creation, then, is to care for a system that we are part of: in caring for the Earth, we care for ourselves.
    In the same way that we have care for our bodies and keep them undefiled from sexual immorality, because we are God’s temples, so we must keep undefiled the Earth from other sorts of immorality. The earth belongs to God and He has dwelt upon it. “Flee from sexual immorality. Every other sin a person commits is outside the body, but the sexually immoral person sins against his own body. Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God? You are not your own, for you were bought with a price. So glorify God in your body.” (1 Corinthians 6:20). Defilement is the same as pollution, the undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities, the release of environmental contaminants. Any substances in water, soil, or air that degrade the natural quality of the environment, offend the senses of sight, taste, or smell, or cause a health hazard. The usefulness of the natural resource is usually impaired by the presence of pollutants and contaminants.
    ...
    What does this coming redemption will look like? Jesus summarises God's will like this: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind, and your neighbour as yourself." (Luke 10:27) In other words, the sum of the will of God for us is that we should have perfect relationships with God and with others. A concern for getting our relationships right is the essence of Christianity.
    As in the parable of the Good Samaritan, having right relationships with our "neighbours" means we must take care of their bodies, as well as their souls, and in order to do this we must take care of the earth, with which we are all interconnected and upon which our well-being depends. Environmental destruction has consequences for people both around the world - as noted above, the poorest and most vulnerable are most at risk from environmental devastation - and down the generations - the call to love our neighbour extends to our children and grandchildren, and on into the future.
    ...
    justice (משׁפּט mishpâṭ). Mishpâṭmishpâṭ). Mishpâṭ is all
    8. Implications for Climate Change
    What does a concern for right relationships mean for the way we take care of our world? The reality is that many of the things we do as a society which damage the earth have their roots in broken relationships or a failure to prioritise relationships over things. Take transport, household energy use and our habits of consumption as examples.
    ...
    Why is the Christian camp so split on this issue?
    How about estimating the carbon emissions of the life of St Paul?!!

    (view changes)
    3:32 am

Monday, August 6

  1. page Cornwall edited Our second Second Celtic Adventure Trip - July ... and Devon Topics: Cornish culture, la…

    Our secondSecond Celtic AdventureTrip - July
    ...
    and Devon
    Topics: Cornish culture, language, heritage, coast, poet Sir John Betjeman, Shakespeare and Cornwall, Sir Francis Drake, Agatha Christie, Mayflower and Plymouth, theology books in Cornwall, and “The Duchy of Cornwall”, the Cornish Diaspora. Comparison of the income of poets and more "astute" writers.

    We continued our search for Celtic history and languages, which we had started in North Wales in early July, seeking out the Celtic minority languages and cultures partly out of interest and partly to identify similarities with the story of the (Celtic) Piedmontese peoples of north west Italy. This time we headed for Cornwall.
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Cornwall_UK_locator_map_2010.svg/200px-Cornwall_UK_locator_map_2010.svg.png} The Celts
    ...
    The Reformation suppressed the Cornish language during “The Prayer Book Rebellion” due to the Book of Common Prayer being demanded in Cornish by its monoglot Cornish speakers. As someone recently said, bitterly: “It may have been cheaper to dispatch a few thousand rebels than translate the Bible into Cornish at Exeter”. The massacre of thousands of Cornish at Exeter just trying to preserve their native language is a severe "blot" against the Reformation - and Edward VIs otherwise educational government.
    Cornish revival
    ...
    “Gorsedd Kernow”.
    Ruth
    Ruth Rendell, the
    Due to the Cornish language having finally been wiped out due to the mass emigration of Cornish mine workers and engineers (and former Cornish smugglers) around the world in the 19th century, many resident Cornish people have lost their Celtic roots and folk songs, though these have been collected.
    {http://www.lib.utexas.edu/benson/stjohndelrey/sStJdR_BC_09_029.jpg}
    There is a “Cornish Diaspora” (millions strong) which carried Cornish pasties, Methodism and rugby around the world. There is a huge annual Cornish festival in South Australia. “Sons of Cornwall” are in Mexico, New Zealand, Australia, USA (2m), Canada, South Africa and Brazil. Traditionally the Cornish ran the UK’s naval base at Devonport, Plymouth. Many Cornish went to London and the North to find work and left behind descendants often with names starting with “Tre” or “Pen”. Famous British people with Cornish genes include Lord Byron, the Brontes, Julian Huxley, Elizabeth Arden and Australian PMs Robert Menzies and Bob Hawke. Shakespeare via the Ardens and Webbs probably had Celtic Cornish and Devon ancestors.
    There is still a “Celtic spirit” in peoples with Cornish genes even if they do not realise it. Today, Cornwall’s main outward culture is maritime - fishing and sailing, alongside a heritage of mining. Above all, Cornwall seems a playground of the English, French and Germans in summer sites, a place to enjoy the wodnerfully romantic coastline and get some sun in perfect fishing villages. But below that, a deeper consciousness does endure.
    The Cornish language robustly survives today in place and surnames. About 400 people can actually converse in Cornish. The rationale of Celtic surnames are set out here. Celtic Cornish place names survive listed here. Perhaps, it is most fascinating that Cornish scholars who have reconstructed the language and those who have addressed Bretons in Cornish in Brittany have been completely understood. Until the Reformation, many Catholic Bretons lived in Cornwall, with their Cornish cousins for they come from a common “stock”. Today, there are nearly 750,000 Breton speakers in north West France . Clearly the “Cornish” language fared better in France though there too, the Bretons have endured minority status.
    DuchyThe Duchy of Cornwall
    ...
    recognition of "Cornish distinctiveness",Cornish "distinctiveness", inspite of
    {http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/content/images/2126644483_061122094757.jpg}
    ...
    “recipes” page).
    Duchy
    Duchy Originals carry
    ...
    and London.
    These
    These foods seems
    ...
    profile Duke (and something of a champion) in Prince
    Lanhydrock (“High Place of Hidrock” in Cornish - “Lannhedrek”)
    ...
    a Daphne du Maurier (Cornish
    {http://www.daveuptonphotography.co.uk/imgs/pages/3592_17485060284a2010b76f229.jpg}
    We were overwhelmed by the library of John Robartes, the first Earl of Radnor who was an independent-minded theologian and opponent of Charles1st, on theological grounds though did not support his execution. John Robartes worked out his theological understanding by thorough reading, making thoughtful margin notes in the great leather theology books which adorn the Jacobean gallery at Lanhydrock, its ceiling decorated with Bible stories in plaster, to teach the children. The library contains many beautiful preserved Calvinist theological books, as well as an early copy of the Geneva Bible. We would love access to this library....
    ...
    Port Quin is a tiny fishing port completely owned by the National Trust whee one can stay in rented NT cottages, listening to the wild sea. Nearby is Tintagel. Its castle’s ruins are where “King Arthur”, probably, if he existed, a Cornish Celtic leader against the pagan Saxons, was born.
    {http://www.cornwalltour.co.uk/images/atlantic/port_quin.jpg}
    Rock
    I wanted to see “Rock”, where the English young and well-heeled take their surfing holidays. It has a fine wide estuary view across to Padstow on the other side. I had hoped to locate poet John Betjeman’s grave, but failed to find the right church. He is, in fact, buried at St Enodoc’s Church, Trebetherick (his gravestone is here) because he died in a house at nearby Trebetherick, though he owned no house and rented. He had loved “Rock” and Cornwall, since his childhood.
    {http://www.trewithickfarm.com/location_files/rock.jpg}
    ...
    Cotehele (National Trust) is an ancient "summerhouse" on the river Tamar with many lovely Huguenot and Brussels wall tapestries. We sat in its lovely and simple “Chapel in the Wood” built as a thank offering by a 15th century ancestor who escaped from the murderous troops of Richard Third by throwing his hat in the Tamar - pretending he had drowned. Commendable, his built this chapel on the spot - to recognise that his prayers had been honoured by God.
    {http://www.cornwall-calling.co.uk/national-trust/cothele2.jpg}
    Cotehele
    Plymouth Hoe
    On the way to Plymouth Hoe we found the oldest house in Plymouth. We took tea on taking in a breathtaking view over Plymouth Sound from Plymouth Hoe where Plymouth’s Mayor and England’s Navy’s second in command, Sir Francis Drake who is supposed to have played bowls while, in 1588, the Spanish Armada sailed up the English Channel intent on re-converting England to Catholicism.
    ...
    {http://i54.photobucket.com/albums/g113/Syl2000/Plymouth/Plymouth-MayflowerSteps1.jpg}
    We crossed its ancient quay, close to the “Mayflower Steps” from which East Anglian Puritans embarked The Mayflower to find religious freedom in The New World, From here, 150 years later, "convicts" embarked to found Australia, with the help of various British sea captains. Captain Cook also set out from this same quay - to discover New Zealand.
    ...
    outstanding beauty.
    Plymouth
    Plymouth is in
    Greenway - the summer house of writer Agatha Christie
    We gradually made our way eastwards along the south coast of Devon, visiting Greenway, Agatha Christie’s summer home near Dartmouth. The interior is now open since Christie’s daughter, Rosalind Hicks, who lived there the last time I visited, died in 2006. She gave it to the National Trust.
    ...
    One could say the same for astute William Shakespeare’s offering his audiences poetry, but in a commerical context - adorning love, murders and ghosts. One could say it about hugely wealthy writers Maeve Binchy and Ruth Rendell.
    I was informed that due to Agatha Christie’s wealthy American father, who had lived with her English mother in Torquay, losing most of his money, Agatha would have had to have earned her living as a trained pharmacist if she had not been successful as a crime writer. It is from this training that, as a crime writer, she drew her specialist knowledge of poisons. I also discovered that Sir Max Mallowan, her archeologist husband married his one time secretary (later an archeologist) immediately, after Lady Agatha’s death in the 1970s. Agatha was about 15 years older than Max and had married Max when she was around 40. Agatha was a Dame in her own right - as well as being, at Greenway always “Mrs Mallowan” or later “Lady Mallowan”.
    ...
    on Cornish LanguageCornishLanguage
    Cornish
    Dictionary “Lexicon
    ...
    Robert Williams (1865)Proverbs(1865)
    Proverbs
    and Rhymes
    Glossary of Cornish Place Names - John Bannister
    Handbook of the Cornish Language - Henry Jenner (1904)
    ...
    Pascon agan Arluth (The Passion of Christ)
    Ordinalia (a cycle of medieval mystery plays)
    Topics: Cornish culture, language, heritage, coast, poet John Betjeman, Shakespeare and Cornwall, Sir Francis Drake, Agatha Christie, Mayflower and Plymouth, theology books in Cornwall, and “The Duchy of Cornwall”, the Cornish Diaspora.
    Alison Bailey Castellina
    3 August, 2012
    (view changes)
    1:20 pm
  2. page Cornwall edited Celtic Our second Celtic Adventure - July 2012 - Cornwall and Devon We continued our searc…
    Celtic
    Our second Celtic
    Adventure - July 2012 - Cornwall and Devon
    We continued our search for Celtic history and languages, which we had started in North Wales in early July, seeking out the Celtic minority languages and cultures partly out of interest and partly to identify similarities with the story of the (Celtic) Piedmontese peoples of north west Italy. This time we headed for Cornwall.
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Cornwall_UK_locator_map_2010.svg/200px-Cornwall_UK_locator_map_2010.svg.png} The Celts
    The Celts originally seem to have had strong links with Iberian peoples and with Celts in mid Western Europe. We soon understood that names of towns in Italy have place names which resemble those in Celtic Cornish. For example, “Treviso” near Milan has the same “tre” prefix as so often occurs in Cornish. “Trevi” in Rome is Celtic, like “Treviglio” and “Trebia” (a river). “Tre” in Cornish means the “farm” or “homestead” of someone whose name is the second half of the name. The Celts spread from Europe and settled in England in pre-Roman times, probably suppressing the original peoples Britain who seem to have come north from the Basque region of northern Spain after the last Ice Age whose genes, apparently, British people still significantly carry -like those still in the Basque region.
    Cornish History
    {http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2278/2104483650_5801b73277_z.jpg?zz=1} When the Romans left Britain, the Romano-British, Celts spoke “Brythonic”, the root language of Welsh, Cornish and Breton. The Celts were not much interested in weaponry and martial arts but instead were farming and fisherpeople with a love of poetry and music.
    Their language was musical and soft - which suited lyrics. Not militaristic, the Celts could not keep the ferocious Picts (“The painted peoples” of Scotland) at bay as the Romans had done by building and manning Hadrian’s Wall. So they possibly invited in Saxons from Frisia (northern Holland) and Angles (Germans) who liked these islands and stayed. As a result, the Celts appear to have been either forced west from their ancestral lands by the combined Anglo-Saxons towards Cumbria (a word meaning “Cymry” or comrades like the name for Wales), Wales and Cornwall - or they were “ethnically cleansed” from Anglo Saxon territories. The root cause of the Celtic migration west was the threat from the Picts before the expanding Anglo- Saxons suppressed them.
    Celtic Christianity
    The Romano-British Celts were Christian from the earliest times, alongside Christanised Romans, but they had been displaced in England by pagan Anglo Saxons. When St Augustine arrived to convert them, he begged the Celtic Bishops to adopt all the Roman Christian practices (e.g. same calculation of Easter and the same tonsure) and then him convert the pagan Anglo Saxons, but the Celts refused, because St Augustine was not respectful enough of their Celtic Christian traditions. he did not stand up, when they came into the room. If he had, they would have worked with him. As a result, it has been assumed the “Celtic Christianity” opposed to Roman Christianity. Celtic Christianity has some different roots from English Christianity - but it is essentially the same faith.
    {http://www.cornwallinfocus.co.uk/images/photos/dc1189%20crossatlamorna.jpg}
    Some Brythonic Celtic tribes from Cornwall crossed to Brittany (“Little Britain”) and some remained in Cornwall. A second wave of missionaries crossed from Wales in the 6th century. St Petroc from Wales carried Celtic Christianity from Padstow through Bodmin to Fowey, crossing Cornwall (“Dunmonia”) along a trade and pilgrimage route which avoided the perils of sailing round Land’s End.
    Other Celtic saints included St Perrin, whose black and white flag is now the flag of Cornwall. During this period, King Mark ruled Cornwall or “Dunmonia” (AD 570-585) known as “Marcus Quonomorus”. His son was possibly “Drustan” (Tristan) who inhabited a Cornish royal palace at Fowey and Tristan fell in love with fellow Celtic “Iseult” from Britanny (“Tristan and Isolde”). The Cornish held on to Exeter until the 10th century. They were called the ”West Welsh” - until as late as the 17th century.
    Cornish - a dead language now being revived
    Cornish as a monoglot language died out by the end of the 17th century. Cornish bilingual speakers died out by the mid 19th century, probably because there was no Bible in Cornish, like that in Welsh from 1588. This death of Cornish may have been a deliberate "murder" on the part of the English. Some find it amazing that the language lasted as long as it did since the Cornish were a “conquered” people.
    Ironically, the supremacy of the English language over Norman-French in England by 1362 (when the English Parliament was allowed to debate in English) was a victory we owe to Cornish campaigners for English, John Trevia and Richard Pencrych, yet English was not their native tongue. The Wars of the Roses severely damaged the Cornish ruling classes and they were either killed or had their estates confiscated, taken over by English.
    {http://www.gorsethkernow.org.uk/images/news/sign07main.jpg}
    There were also battles with the English. Rebel Cornishmen Michael Joseph an Gof of St Feverne and Thomas Flaminck of Bodmin, marched in 1497 (under Henry VII) to Blackheath, south east London to fight the imposition of taxes on the Cornish to pay for wars against Scotland. The Cornish marched again two months later to join Perkin Warbeck. This may have provoked the English.
    Unusually, Shakespeare writes nothing much about Cornwall. In "Henry V", he oddly calls “Leroy” a Cornish name because it is French. In his Celtic play “King Lear”, the Duke and Duchy of Cornwall figure strongly - as if to recognise Cornwall’s Celtic history.
    The Prayer Book Rebellion
    The Reformation suppressed the Cornish language during “The Prayer Book Rebellion” due to the Book of Common Prayer being demanded in Cornish by its monoglot Cornish speakers. As someone recently said, bitterly: “It may have been cheaper to dispatch a few thousand rebels than translate the Bible into Cornish at Exeter”. The massacre of thousands of Cornish at Exeter just trying to preserve their native language is a severe "blot" against the Reformation - and Edward VIs otherwise educational government.
    Cornish revival
    Linguists have been trying to revive the Cornish language - in spite of Cornish not having a strong, extant literature. As a result, there are now Cornish Bards and a Grand Bard who meet among themselves and with the Bretons from Brittany at “Gorsedd Kernow”.
    Ruth Rendell, the crime writer, who is a major donor to the Labour Party, is apparently a keen champion of the Cornish language. There are also various Cornish websites. “Minority language status” has been accorded to it. Cornwall Council ensured that The Cornwall Renewables Energy Show 2012 translated its main articles into Cornish.
    Due to the Cornish language having finally been wiped out due to the mass emigration of Cornish mine workers and engineers (and former Cornish smugglers) around the world in the 19th century, many resident Cornish people have lost their Celtic roots and folk songs, though these have been collected.
    {http://www.lib.utexas.edu/benson/stjohndelrey/sStJdR_BC_09_029.jpg}
    There is a “Cornish Diaspora” (millions strong) which carried Cornish pasties, Methodism and rugby around the world. There is a huge annual Cornish festival in South Australia. “Sons of Cornwall” are in Mexico, New Zealand, Australia, USA (2m), Canada, South Africa and Brazil. Traditionally the Cornish ran the UK’s naval base at Devonport, Plymouth. Many Cornish went to London and the North to find work and left behind descendants often with names starting with “Tre” or “Pen”. Famous British people with Cornish genes include Lord Byron, the Brontes, Julian Huxley, Elizabeth Arden and Australian PMs Robert Menzies and Bob Hawke. Shakespeare via the Ardens and Webbs probably had Celtic Cornish and Devon ancestors.
    There is still a “Celtic spirit” in peoples with Cornish genes even if they do not realise it. Today, Cornwall’s main outward culture is maritime - fishing and sailing, alongside a heritage of mining. Above all, Cornwall seems a playground of the English, French and Germans in summer sites, a place to enjoy the wodnerfully romantic coastline and get some sun in perfect fishing villages. But below that, a deeper consciousness does endure.
    The Cornish language robustly survives today in place and surnames. About 400 people can actually converse in Cornish. The rationale of Celtic surnames are set out here. Celtic Cornish place names survive listed here. Perhaps, it is most fascinating that Cornish scholars who have reconstructed the language and those who have addressed Bretons in Cornish in Brittany have been completely understood. Until the Reformation, many Catholic Bretons lived in Cornwall, with their Cornish cousins for they come from a common “stock”. Today, there are nearly 750,000 Breton speakers in north West France . Clearly the “Cornish” language fared better in France though there too, the Bretons have endured minority status.
    Duchy of Cornwall
    Today Cornwall is often mentioned as a Duchy as in“The Duchy of Cornwall”. This is something of a recognition of "Cornish distinctiveness", inspite of Cornwall having been treated as a kind of cash cow, a source of income for the Crown since the 14th century. Indeed, it is still mentioned as such e.g. in the newspapers - "the income from the Duchy of Cornwall". Not all the Duchy is in the Duchy itself. It is all over the south of England - and in Wales.
    {http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/content/images/2126644483_061122094757.jpg}
    The Prince of Wales promotes delicious organic “Duchy Originals” which are branded foods such as oat cakes, organic beer, preserves. There are Duchy body products (all listed here). (For body products use the “Site Map”. I would also recommend some of the ideas on their “recipes” page).
    Duchy Originals carry the PoW’s Cornish “crest” which is 15 gold bezants because his home, Highgrove House/Home Farm, belongs not to him, but to The Duchy of Cornwall - along with properties in Kent, Gloucestershire, Wales and London.
    These foods seems much healthier than Cornish clotted cream teas but the name brand “Duchy Originals” (available at Waitrose). Though good for Cornwall, this branding does not indicate that all products are sourced from Cornish farms. The contributing farms, operating organic farming systems are in England, Wales and Cornwall.
    Cornwall has a high profile Duke (and something of a champion) in Prince Charles. The Duke must be The Sovereign’s son, not grandson. It also has Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall. Charles was invested “Duke of Cornwall” in the 1970s at rather ruined Launceston Castle. The Duchy of Cornwall website is translated into the Cornish language. It offers some interesting information on Cornwall’s ancient monuments. I google this website to inspect delightful interior design for Cornish and Welsh cottages, which is worthy of wider imitation.
    Lanhydrock (“High Place of Hidrock” in Cornish - “Lannhedrek”)
    We started our tour at magical Lanhydrock (National Trust) a magnificently romantic stately home near Bodmin (“dwelling of the monks - “Bosvenegh”). There is something “Celtic” in its fantastical gatehouse. It is the ancestral seat of the Earls of Radnor. Though restored as a fine Victorian house, it has the romantic allure of a Daphne Maurier (Cornish novelist) fictional house, such as “Manderley” in “Rebecca”. Manderley is not clearly in Cornwall but it was clearly a very long drive away from London. At Lanhydrock, one can imagine dark and beautiful Rebecca, as treacherous as the Cornish coastline, in a 1930s silk dressing gown, brushing her long hair, at the dressing table overlooking the Jacobean gatehouse.
    {http://www.daveuptonphotography.co.uk/imgs/pages/3592_17485060284a2010b76f229.jpg}
    We were overwhelmed by the library of John Robartes, the first Earl of Radnor who was an independent-minded theologian and opponent of Charles1st, on theological grounds though did not support his execution. John Robartes worked out his theological understanding by thorough reading, making thoughtful margin notes in the great leather theology books which adorn the Jacobean gallery at Lanhydrock, its ceiling decorated with Bible stories in plaster, to teach the children. The library contains many beautiful preserved Calvinist theological books, as well as an early copy of the Geneva Bible. We would love access to this library....
    Cornwall Renewable Energy Show at Delabole (Delabole is “Delyow” a stream in Cornish)
    Bodmin seems to be a “capital of renewables” in England - surrounded by surprisingly handsome community scale wind turbines. At Delabole, which is the first wind farm in England, after giving a presentation on renewables, we inspected some “plug-in” cars which attract a 20% grants from the Dept for Transport.
    {http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ME3jAB7DDbM/UB91qwg3PLI/AAAAAAAAAP4/CKlPVVLLiKQ/s320/DSCF2083.JPG}
    Boscastle (“Botterels Castle” in English)
    We visited Boscastle, a small former fishing village, which shockingly flooded like this in 2004 with many cars swept into the harbour.
    {http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Yp15uL8K-IQ/UB_s5sjaTQI/AAAAAAAAAQI/I-dJUQqajlU/s320/boscastle.JPG}
    (This photo is Polperro)
    Boscastle seems a safe place on a sunny afternoon but it sits on the verge of dangerous waters - the turbulent sea and a deceptive brook. A beautiful walk up the right side of its harbour to the sea was evidence enough. It is hard not to be deeply entranced by this section of the north Cornish coast which is dangerous and dark and very romantic.
    Port Quin (“White Cove” in Cornish - “Porth-gwynn”)
    Port Quin is a tiny fishing port completely owned by the National Trust whee one can stay in rented NT cottages, listening to the wild sea. Nearby is Tintagel. Its castle’s ruins are where “King Arthur”, probably, if he existed, a Cornish Celtic leader against the pagan Saxons, was born.
    {http://www.cornwalltour.co.uk/images/atlantic/port_quin.jpg}
    Rock
    I wanted to see “Rock”, where the English young and well-heeled take their surfing holidays. It has a fine wide estuary view across to Padstow on the other side. I had hoped to locate poet John Betjeman’s grave, but failed to find the right church. He is, in fact, buried at St Enodoc’s Church, Trebetherick (his gravestone is here) because he died in a house at nearby Trebetherick, though he owned no house and rented. He had loved “Rock” and Cornwall, since his childhood.
    {http://www.trewithickfarm.com/location_files/rock.jpg}
    The sandy beach at Rock on the Camel estuary, facing Padstow
    Padstow (“Holy Place of St Petroc” in English)
    We also loved Padstow - which is like a film set - and connected to Rock by a pedestrian ferry.
    {http://www.padstow.com/images/harbour.jpg}
    Fowey (“Beechtrees” in Cornish - “Fow-wydh”)
    We crossed Cornwall to its south coast as Cornwall is only about 20 miles wide, at this point. Fowey is part of the “Riviera of England” situated on a river. It has a delightful Parish Church, which follows the Book of Common Prayer - and follows a reformed theology. It tower is below. Daphne du Maurier's novels at all on sale opposte as she lived here and adored the history of Cornwall.
    {http://cache2.allpostersimages.com/p/LRG/21/2149/PS1CD00Z/posters/bayne-julia-waterfront-fowey-cornwall-england-united-kingdom.jpg}
    Polperro (“Porth Pyrra” meaning a “Cove of Pyrra”)
    Polperro’s Spanish-sounding name is rather misleading beause it is Celtic. It is the most typically picturesque Cornish fishing village if nearely ruined by some cheap and cheerful shops. Artists are everywhere painting bright fishing boats, bobbing against pretty, whitewashed walls. There is typical rich Cornish ice cream (thick with clotted Cornish milk) and Cornish "pasties” originally food for tin miners. We walked among many admiring Germans and French breathing in the salt air.
    {http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-dKpyElLe_WM/UB_u-20mfeI/AAAAAAAAAQU/B4FxT8jFKCI/s320/polperro.JPG}
    Cotehele (pronounced “Cote Heel”)
    Cotehele (National Trust) is an ancient "summerhouse" on the river Tamar with many lovely Huguenot and Brussels wall tapestries. We sat in its lovely and simple “Chapel in the Wood” built as a thank offering by a 15th century ancestor who escaped from the murderous troops of Richard Third by throwing his hat in the Tamar - pretending he had drowned. Commendable, his built this chapel on the spot - to recognise that his prayers had been honoured by God.
    {http://www.cornwall-calling.co.uk/national-trust/cothele2.jpg}
    Plymouth Hoe
    On the way to Plymouth Hoe we found the oldest house in Plymouth. We took tea on taking in a breathtaking view over Plymouth Sound from Plymouth Hoe where Plymouth’s Mayor and England’s Navy’s second in command, Sir Francis Drake who is supposed to have played bowls while, in 1588, the Spanish Armada sailed up the English Channel intent on re-converting England to Catholicism.
    {http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-R4eYqS1aw6I/UB_vqceKyTI/AAAAAAAAAQc/QeFFXKq1I94/s320/plymouth.JPG}
    In fact, much feared Drake was a Kentish sailor, having, aged nine, had to leave Devon due to the Prayer Book Rebellion with his Protestant farmer father, who gained a living as a minister at Upnor Church near Rochester in Kent. This tiny village has direct water access to the Thames. Soon Drake was apprenticed to a bargeowner. So Drake’s astounding global sailing career started on the River Medway. Elizabeth 1st knew what she owed him: she would even dine with him on this ship moored on the Thames.
    Apparently, the Italian Ambassador to Queen Elizabeth’s Court thought that Cornishmen would join the Spanish in the attack on her kingdom but there is no clear sign that they did.
    Drake harried the heavy Armada’s Spanish galleons up the Channel - with fire ships. A massive storm, attributed to the Almighty, wrecked much of the Armada and thus saved England for Protestantism, the Book of Common Prayer and for Shakespeare. There is a memorial to this blessed event on Plymouth Hoe.
    Old Plymouth and The Mayflower Steps
    We located “Old Plymouth”, an attractive quarter, with a few very old buildings. It is social centre for Plymouth’s nightlife - a nice night harbour filled with fine yachts.
    {http://i54.photobucket.com/albums/g113/Syl2000/Plymouth/Plymouth-MayflowerSteps1.jpg}
    We crossed its ancient quay, close to the “Mayflower Steps” from which East Anglian Puritans embarked The Mayflower to find religious freedom in The New World, From here, 150 years later, "convicts" embarked to found Australia, with the help of various British sea captains. Captain Cook also set out from this same quay - to discover New Zealand.
    Plymouth, literally “the mouth of the River Plynn”, with its grand estuary, still feels like the gate to the world, a kind of launch pad of history. I had never realised before the glory of Plymouth on a sunny evening in July. These adventurers must have been very highly motivated or divinely led to leave such outstanding beauty.
    Plymouth is in Devon and lies across the Tamar from Cornwall, this was the end of our “Cornish adventure”.
    Greenway - the summer house of writer Agatha Christie
    We gradually made our way eastwards along the south coast of Devon, visiting Greenway, Agatha Christie’s summer home near Dartmouth. The interior is now open since Christie’s daughter, Rosalind Hicks, who lived there the last time I visited, died in 2006. She gave it to the National Trust.
    {http://teawithmarykate.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/greenway-agatha_christie_library.jpg}
    The house is preserved exactly as it was when Agatha Christie lived there - for just 6 weeks each year. It is large, comfortable and with a large library. I was impressed by her feminine bedroom. Sadly, It lacks views of the wonderful Dart River meandering below it. The NT have agreed never to turn it into a “theme park” but to leave it as a kind of frozen snapshot of her affluent life. The Christies did not want “Inspector Poirot” walking about in full dress - or “murderous” weekend parties taking place.
    Fascinatingly, many wealthy writers seem to be motivated by aspiring to own a fine house during their childhood. Agatha Christie saw Greenway from below, as a child and wanted it. Charles Dickens saw Gad’s Hill outside Rochester on a walk with his father and it motivated his writing career. William Shakespeare probably wanted New Place next to his school since childhood. My advice to modern writers: pick a house, fall in love with it and write - to own it and then leave it to the nation!
    Christie owned other properties in Persia, Wallingford and elsewhere. I pondered on Agatha Christie’s huge wealth compared with the poverty of Welsh poet R S Thomas and John Betjeman rented retirement, who said "There is no money in poetry". Thomas was a deep and life-changing writer - which Christie would never claim to be - but the cost of being a poet is high. I discussed this with one of the very informative guides at Greenway. She agreed with me and then wisely commented:
    “Agatha Christie was a very astute woman: she gave people what they wanted”.
    One could say the same for astute William Shakespeare’s offering his audiences poetry, but in a commerical context - adorning love, murders and ghosts. One could say it about hugely wealthy writers Maeve Binchy and Ruth Rendell.
    I was informed that due to Agatha Christie’s wealthy American father, who had lived with her English mother in Torquay, losing most of his money, Agatha would have had to have earned her living as a trained pharmacist if she had not been successful as a crime writer. It is from this training that, as a crime writer, she drew her specialist knowledge of poisons. I also discovered that Sir Max Mallowan, her archeologist husband married his one time secretary (later an archeologist) immediately, after Lady Agatha’s death in the 1970s. Agatha was about 15 years older than Max and had married Max when she was around 40. Agatha was a Dame in her own right - as well as being, at Greenway always “Mrs Mallowan” or later “Lady Mallowan”.
    Works on Cornish LanguageCornish Dictionary “Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum” - Robert Williams (1865)Proverbs and Rhymes in Cornish - Williams Copeland Borlase (1872)
    Glossary of Cornish Place Names - John Bannister
    Handbook of the Cornish Language - Henry Jenner (1904)
    Cornish Simplified - A S D Smith (1939)
    LIving Cornish - Richard Gendall (1980)
    Cornish Today - Nicholas Williams (1995)
    Main literary works in Cornish:
    Pascon agan Arluth (The Passion of Christ)
    Ordinalia (a cycle of medieval mystery plays)
    Topics: Cornish culture, language, heritage, coast, poet John Betjeman, Shakespeare and Cornwall, Sir Francis Drake, Agatha Christie, Mayflower and Plymouth, theology books in Cornwall, and “The Duchy of Cornwall”, the Cornish Diaspora.
    Alison Bailey Castellina
    3 August,
    2012
    (view changes)
    1:06 pm
  3. page Cornwall edited Celtic Adventure July 2012
    Celtic Adventure July 2012
    (view changes)
    1:04 pm
  4. page Reflections edited ... Her blog is "AnnisBetweenWorlds". She researches the English Renaissance, the Reform…
    ...
    Her blog is "AnnisBetweenWorlds". She researches the English Renaissance, the Reformation and the Italian influence in England and on English thought and art, during the period 1550 -1620. She has a particular interest in poetess, Mary Sidney, who paraphrased the Psalms and wrote the first blank verse drama in English (before Shakespeare).
    (The most recent article first)
    TheSecond Celtic adventure - Cornwall July 2012
    First Celtic adventure - the
    Beauty of
    Royal Palaces of Henry VIII - page of links
    A meditation on Revd John Stott's injunction to be different from the world - but how are we to put that into practice today?
    (view changes)
    12:58 pm

More